Thursday, September 11, 2014

Puritan Women

Tonight, please consider the women and girls of The Crucible. Using Puritan poet Anne Bradstreet’s poems on the next page, your background knowledge, and what we've seen so far in Acts I and II, create a brief character sketch of a Puritan woman—you can write a descriptive paragraph or create a found poem based upon the phrases from Bradstreet's poems and Miller's play. Think about hopes, dreams, fears, goals, motivations, secrets, truths…etc.

Here followes some verses upon the burning of our house, July 10th, 1666. By Anne Bradstreet

In silent night when rest I took,
For sorrow neer I did not look,
I waken'd was with thundring nois
And Piteous shreiks of dreadfull voice.
That fearfull sound of fire and fire,
Let no man know is my Desire.
I, starting up, the light did spye,
And to my God my heart did cry
To strengthen me in my Distresse
And not to leave me succourlesse.
Then coming out beheld a space,
The flame consume my dwelling place.

And, when I could no longer look,
I blest his Name that gave and took,
That layd my goods now in the dust:
Yea so it was, and so 'twas just.
It was his own: it was not mine;
Far be it that I should repine.

He might of All justly bereft,
But yet sufficient for us left.
When by the Ruines oft I past,
My sorrowing eyes aside did cast,
And here and there the places spye
Where oft I sate, and long did lye.

Here stood that Trunk, and there that chest;
There lay that store I counted best:
My pleasant things in ashes lye,
And them behold no more shall I.
Under thy roof no guest shall sitt,
Nor at thy Table eat a bitt.

No pleasant tale shall 'ere be told,
Nor things recounted done of old.
No Candle 'ere shall shine in Thee,
Nor bridegroom's voice ere heard shall bee.
In silence ever shalt thou lye;
Adieu, Adeiu; All's vanity.

Then streight I gin my heart to chide,
And didst thy wealth on earth abide?
Didst fix thy hope on mouldring dust,
The arm of flesh didst make thy trust?
Raise up thy thoughts above the skye
That dunghill mists away may flie.

Thou hast an house on high erect
Fram'd by that mighty Architect,
With glory richly furnished,
Stands permanent tho' this bee fled.
It's purchased, and paid for too
By him who hath enough to doe.

A Prise so vast as is unknown,
Yet, by his Gift, is made thine own.
Ther's wealth enough, I need no more;
Farewell my Pelf, farewell my Store.
The world no longer let me Love,
My hope and Treasure lyes Above.

Text notes:
Line 5: fire and fire, Fire! and Fire!
Line 11: beheld a space, watched for a time
Line 14: I blest his name that gave and took, see Job 1:21
Line 24: Sate, sat
Line 40: Arm of flesh, see 2 Chron. 32:8; Isa. 9:18-20; Jer. 17:4-7
Line 42: Dunghill mists, see Ezra 6:9-12.
Line 43: House on high erect, see 2 Cor. 5:1; Heb. 11:10
Line 48: Enough to doe, ie. enough to do it
Line 52: Pelf, property, possessions
Line 54: Treasure lyes Above, see Luke 12:34

Her Mother's Epitaph

Here lies
A worthy matron of unspotted life,
A loving mother and obedient wife,
A friendly neighbor, pitiful to poor,
Whom oft she fed, and clothed with her store;
To servants wisely aweful, but yet kind,
And as they did, so they reward did find:
A true instructor of her family,
The which she ordered with dexterity,
The public meetings ever did frequent,
And in her closest constant hours she spent;
Religious in all her words and ways,
Preparing still for death, till end of days:
Of all her children, children lived to see,
Then dying, left a blessed memory.

Her Father's Epitaph

Within this tomb a patriot lies
That was both pious, just and wise,
To truth a shield, to right a wall,
To sectaries a whip and maul,
A magazine of history,
A prizer of good company
In manners pleasant and severe
The good him loved, the bad did fear,
And when his time with years was spent
In some rejoiced, more did lament.
1653, age 77



  1. In the Puritan era, women were held to high standards, and were expected to behave admirably and conform constantly. They were expected to follow all rules, and hold the rules as almost laws, which were a sin to break. The women (and men) were expected to attend church, and worship God. As disobeying religion was the highest sin and the greatest disobedience possible, any offenders of any gender were punished severely. However, women who disobeyed God often were accused of worshiping the devil, and commonly accused of being a witch, as Abigail and the other girls found out in The Crucible, which could prove fatal. Puritan women were also supposed to clean the house, watch the children, cook, etc. The women were supposed to submit to the males, and accept the fact that they were the inferior sex. The women had little to no political power, or no power whatsoever, because their male counterparts did not wish to be emasculated. Furthermore, if a woman or girl did not have a husband, or a male to make choices for her, then she was considered worthless in the community. These lines from the poem, Her Mothers' Epitaph, by Anne Bradstreet: "A worthy matron of unspotted life, A loving mother and obedient wife, A friendly neighbor, pitiful to poor,...A true instructor of her family, The which she ordered with dexterity,...Religious in all her words and ways..." Women were expected to do many things, as were men, but the women had a much more difficult roles that required total submission and obedience, dexterity, and several other strong qualities that enabled women to make a place for themselves in the Puritan society.

  2. Women in many ways had harder lives than men. They had many duties to tend to; cleaning, cooking, other house keeping work, the children, and keeping up a public image. As well as, if any of their daughters were not permitted to go the school house (as it was in some societies) women home schooled them. Women had to stay on a straight path of religion, and being devout to all it stated; as shown in Her Mother's Epitaph "Religious in all her words and ways"; stating that she upheld the image which gave her a good lasting legacy compared to a bad one. Women were worked very hard, especially as "child-bearers", being that they had as many children as they could to keep the family lines running, as many died. With the many jobs women had on top of it all they had to deal with that they were below men. Men ordered them around, and could replace them easily. Women could not divorce men in the Puritan society, yet men could divorce women. Women were very low on the food chain, being a married woman was as far up as any woman or girl got up in society. They were degraded, and could be punished by their husbands as they thought fit. In the Crucible, men were not only higher up, but when the accusations of witches flew around, pun intended, the women and elders were the main people being accused of witchcraft. The men, even though some (John Proctor), forget one of the ten commandments did not seem as suspicious as any normal woman. In the Crucible, Miller portrays strong women as evil, horrendous, wrong, or manipulative; there could be no woman with such morals, without being seen as in the wrong. Women were repressed, and they had to deal with it day to day. The only thing worse than being a women in the society was being a widower or a slave.

  3. In the time of the Puritans, women were held to very high expectations. They had to dress, talk, and be the way society and the church deemed appropriate. Everyone in society was expected to be in church every Sunday, and follow all laws in the town. Any association with the devil or evil was the greatest sin known in that community, and punishable by death, unless the person confessed to the sin, then the punishments were less severe. One thing I observed about the Puritans was that was much easier for the women to be accused of sinning with the devil by being called a witch, whereas for men, they could still be accused but was not as common. many things degraded a woman or girl of that time. They were expected to get married and have children, and if they were not married by their later teenage years they became a detriment to society. As illustrated in The Crucible, women do have power in numbers. Alone they are expected to conform to society, but when they come together they can influence almost everything that happens in the town. As said in Her Mother's Epitaph
    ,"A true instructor of her family," women hold up their household and their families, and probably the strongest people in the community. Most women hoped to go through life as a good faithful women. Everyone in the Puritan society was fearful of God and the Devil. They feared that if they make one sin, Gods' hand, that is holding them up, will drop them and they will be damned. They are also fearful of the devil of what he might do to make the hand of God come out from under them.

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  5. Women in Puritan communities had many responsibilities but few rights. In many ways, women were tied to their husbands and families; that is, their reputation and public images depended on who they married. Women acted as guardians of tradition. As Her Mother's Epitaph puts it, a good woman was a "a loving mother and obedient wife, a friendly neighbor, pitiful to poor...a true instructor of her family...religious in all her words and ways." Women were motivated by a desire to please God, maintain their public image, and have a stable relationship with their husbands. Since they were unable to initiate a divorce, women often felt constrained by their husbands. In the Crucible, women lacked official power: they did not become church, political, or community leaders. However, they did have unofficial influence. This becomes obvious when Abigail and her friends raise enough suspicion about witchcraft to put reputable citizens on trial. Puritan women did not aspire to become very visible compared to men, in fact they were quite modest, but they did what they could do behind the scenes. Women were not only obedient and religious, but they also felt that they had to conform in general. Uniqueness was discouraged. The article about the poet Anne Brandstreet called her a “strange aberration of womanhood at the time” because she studied history, science, and literature seriously. Puritan women were taught to read simply so that they could read the Bible, not so they could become scholars. Women in Puritan life were expected to be religious, conforming homemakers, but there certainly was an important role for them in everyday life.

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  7. In the time of the Puritans, Women held very little power, with large things expected of them. Women were expected to conform with what society viewed them to be. This may have been in order to please God, but it was also to maintain a reputation in the society in which they lived. The fear of being outcast and not conforming drove women to follow the rules set in place for them. Being so low in the social order didn't necessarily mean they held the least power in anyway. For example in The Crucible." Some women may be being accused of witchcraft, but other women are able to hoist themselves up with the knowledge of what is going on and gain power over others. At this point, Abigail has quite a bit of power because she uses the peoples fear of the devil in order to protect herself and her reputation. So, Puritan women may needed to conform and follow the rules society has put in place for them, but that doesn't keep them from being able to move up in power, it all depends on the situation.

  8. The lives of men and women were so different during the puritan times they should not put in the same category of human. While men were looked highly upon for leadership, skills, and other conventional masculine traits, women were paid little to no respect. A women's education was of no importance, they were simply needed to follow God's will, as well as their husbands. The purpose of their learning was to read the Bible, not for the sake of a fair education or to be in any profession. They were forced into conformity and those who resisted were looked at as though they were disgusting creatures and had even less rights in their home towns. There lives were filled with the same bland tasks. Anne Bradstreet states a similar theme in “Her Mothers Epitaph”, "The public meetings ever did frequent, And in her closest constant hours she spent; Religious in all her words and ways, Preparing still for death, till end of days." A woman's life had no variation and was as dull as it was yielding. Because of the way the Bible states the roles of women, no person dared disobey the stereotype in fear of a worse fate in Hell. While Bradstreet's "Her Mother Epitaph" Illustrates the mundane conformist roles of women, "Her Fathers Epitaph" shows the differences in how society perceives them. "Her Mother Epitaph" focus's on the women role in her family and in the household with the lines " A true instructor of her family, The which she ordered with dexterity." In opposition to that, "Her Fathers Epitaph" depicts a man's role in the whole of society, not just in the household. The lives of women were dismissed until they seemed to do something wrong. If the women behaved they would live there tedious lives out as housewives and “perfect” Christian mothers.

  9. As with all puritans, women were very much motivated by not only the love of God but also the fear of punishment. I say punishment instead of the Devil because I think that the outcome is typically worse than the motivator. In Arthur Miller's The Crucible, the girls who performed the voodoo have taken accusations to an extreme. At first, they were accusing other people to move the blame away from them. But because of motivation of the fear of consequences, they continue to accuse others. These accusations are not only making their very unbelievable story more concrete (though still quite unbelievable) but also revealing their true motivation. In a very simple community, women were mostly expected to cook, clean, and be a mother. Unlike men of a puritan society, they were expected to be strong, but not disobedient, and religion-oriented. In Anne Bradstreet's mother's epitaph she states, "A loving mother and obedient wife...Religious in all her words and ways...Of all her children, children lived to see, Then dying, left a blessed memory." This supports the idea that women were expected to be obedient to their husbands, religious, and also that they must live for other people to remember when they are gone, not to live for themselves. The memory of these women was more important than their actual important contribution to the society. Also these women's worth was based on their marital status. An unmarried adult female was basically worthless to this society because they are not "contributing" to their society. This is essentially stating that women's only purpose in this society was to have children and they cannot support themselves with a man. Unfortunately, some people still believe this today.

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  11. Women had no power, and nearly every aspect of their life was impacted/controlled by men. Men held the powerful decision-making positions in their town, though decisions affected everyone (including women, who had no say). Men chose a wife (or a father arranged a marriage) - a young woman not yet arranged for marriage was considered abnormal (as exemplified by Mary Warren). This put a girl at high stakes for accusations of witchcraft. Similarly, a woman widowed and made poor by the death of her husband could also raise suspicion for accusation of witchcraft (the ultimate decision of which was also made by men).
    Women were likely terrified of being seen as any sort of imperfect; they were expected to be upstanding, obedient, submissive, God-loving citizens, and any sort of random coincidental act (such as the death of a child) could put them at risk for jail, exile, or hanging under any number of accusations. I'm sure at some point women got very fed up with behaving "lady-like", quiet, and friendly all the time.I'm also sure at some point they felt sinful and wretched because thought=action, so sinful (outspoken) thought = sinful (outspoken) action.
    A final note about the women in Puritan times comes from a comparison of Bradstreet's "Her Mother's Epitaph" and "Her Father's Epitaph". The mother is spoken of only in relation to other people - her children, her husband, her neighbors, the suffering, her church, etc. while the father is clearly made out to be his own person undefined by others. This is a good example of the gender differences at the time: while men were there own person, women existed solely in terms of someone else.

  12. Women were not treated with respect and were not given power, but they had to be good mothers, take care of their home, respect the husband and other men, while being good Christians. The women were given more responsibilities without receiving power. Women were seen as housekeepers and mothers. Women rarely were able to choose who to marry since it was mainly decided by their fathers and other men. Also girls had the inability to divorce but when a man was sick of his wife or if their wife made one small error they could be divorced. Women were also beaten or hurt by their husbands or fathers if they did anything wrong. In Her Father’s Epitaph the writer states, “In manners pleasant and severe the good loved him the bad feared”. Bradstreet was saying how if the women were good and respectful there could be reward but if bad was done the beatings horrible. The women did have power to avoid the cruelty and could only bear down and wait for the pain to end. However in Miller’s book “The Crucible” a select group of women obtained power but were also told by their father to accuse certain people to obtain benefits. The women were beginning to raise or fear of men and could stand up for themselves and remove people they did not want. This is how the girls in the book are able to get away from the standards and be independent and strong.

  13. Be a perfect home and husband blessed,
    I every night pray as she rest.
    Spend time in the Father’s love for thee,
    as such I’d plant a growing seed.
    Sow the seed in good soil,
    and visit it every day.
    As I watch it grow and toil,
    The Ten Commandments should she say.

    The sunlight hit her virgin lips
    that speak no evil, only sweet bliss.
    Let her thoughts be just as pure,
    If so treasure lyes above for sure.
    And flow’ring as she does so soon,
    Let the blossoms perfect, white as the moon.
    I every night pray as she rest,
    Be a perfect home and husband blessed.

    This poem is from a mother’s perspective praying/thinking about her child. It gives the ideals of a woman in puritan society, which, when looking at the Crucible, you see that that is what started the chaos. Wanting a husband, the girls committed a sin as seen through the ideals eyes, and then were turned around to be perfectly holy. And yet, even though in today’s society, this is seen as awful, they were just ‘living up’ to the societal convictions of perfection.

  14. When it came to the Puritans women were given very little power, but at the same time they were held to extremely high standards. They had to have children and take care of them, as well as taking care of their husband, making sure the house was in order, respect the other men in the community, and all the while the had to be up to Christian. standards. In my Mothers Epitaph it states "A worthy matron of unspotted life, A loving mother and obedient wife, A friendly neighbor, pitiful to poor". This implies that women had to do everything for about everyone in their lives. And for the women who weren't married or were widowed and hadn't remarried, they were almost worthless to the community. Nearly every aspect in women's lives were controlled by the men around them, as well as men were given so many more freedoms and less responsibilities than their women counterparts. Men controlled who they married and whether they got divorced or not. The Puritans had a very unequal way of contacting themselves between men and women, which to them seemed like the best thing for the community

  15. Puritan woman have many rules and stereotypes. They cannot break these rules and must conform to the standards. Although a woman can be a perfect wife, mother, and churchgoer, this can strip them of their individuality. In “Her Mothers’ Epitaph” by Anne Bradstreet, she mentions some of the typical woman’s characteristics as mentioned on the epitaph of a tomb stone. “A loving mother and obedient wife, a friendly neighbor, pitiful to poor, whom oft she fed, and clothed with her store” Woman had no power and would strive to be all of these things even though on the inside it isn’t what she really wants. Abigail Williams in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible went against these standards and it sent the entire community into a witch hunt. Really all she was doing is looking for some individuality. Furthermore, In our society today, women have power in relationships. But in The Crucible, Mary Warren is worthless because she is 18 but still single. Also, now the woman can ask for a divorce but getting married then would mean being stuck with the man and letting him constantly call the shots. Women could never speak their minds which leaves them to let their individual needs bubble up inside of them.

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  17. Women were to be obedient to men, and faithful Christians. They were given many responsibilities, but never rewarded because in the Puritan society, that was their job. The women mainly took care of their families, while the men were "to be feared," as the father's epitaph says. The woman's role was to serve her family and God; it was all she did with her life. The men were able to live their present life to more of an extent than the women. Many women that disobeyed common religious rules found themselves being accused of witchcraft, as we see with Abigail in The Crucible. Generally speaking, men did all the fighting, and women did all the housework. Women could have some power, but it only came through land ownership or accusation, like when Abigail began accusing people in the book. The problem with the power of accusation is once you have the power, the people you have control of are probably too freaked out/paranoid to actually listen to what you have to say.

  18. Women in the Puritan society often bowed down to men and God. They often tested their boundaries as teenagers and had many desires that drifted astray from their religion. Their motivation in life was God and also fear of punishment from God himself. In their eyes God was all mighty and powerful. However, God would be less powerful if he didn't have the ability to banish anyone who wasn't faithfully devoted to him, to hell. I think in Miller's portrayal of this community, the women that cause the most fear in the community, are the most powerful, just like how God is powerful because everyone fears him. In the Puritan community the women's secrets were either kept to themselves in their heads, or shared with the entire society. I believe this was part of their motivation as well. As women they weren't as credible as men were in a court situation (cruelty). The less bad they did, the better their reputation was, this could help them in the long run in a life or death scenario when accused of witch craft. Their reputation wasn't just important in so they were socially accepted, having a good reputation could help build their credibility.
    Women may have not had many rights in their society however there is no doubt they had a huge influence. Women were denied the right to divorce, be a judge, be a minister, ect. but were expected to be perfect wives and mothers. However, because they were so limited they found other ways to have power. In "The Crucible" Abby and her friends found this power. No they weren't allowed to have any say in the justice system, but they knew how to manipulate the minds of their ignorant piers in order to get what they wanted. They found power in numbers and took advantage of it knowing that soon they would be constricted again. All in all, if this society was more balanced with responsibility and power, the community would not have seen dramatic episodes of chaos such as the one we are reading about in "The Crucible".

  19. Puritan women were given two goals in life. First, to be married, and second, to be perfect. Her reputation in the town could not have one smudge on it, in any area. Her home, her husband, and her children all had to perfect because what they did reflected upon her. She was expected to obey her husband, attend church, and keep house. Girls who were not married were not considered as really anything at all. They worked for families, but even as adult could be treated as children, subject to things like beatings, and whippings. And even if they achieved all this, they still could be discredited by the slightest word for witchcraft, which they likely couldn’t prove themselves innocent of, and were only given the option of confessing, which changed their lives forever.

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  21. The common women in the Puritan society was an object. They were given few rights, were treated like second class citizens, and could be objectified immediately. The women was expected to follow the strictest of rules and if they failed they could be cast out or accused of being a witch. They did not have much freedom with opinion or virtually any creative expression. They were, for the most part, beasts of burden.

    The strong Puritan women could only be strong in secret. They could never express their true opinions without ridicule. To combat this they use their lower class of authority for their interests. In other words they knew how the game was played. The women were extremely knowledgeable of how powerful rumors are. To get out of a situation they would often point the finger at someone else. They also knew how to manipulate superstition; such as the witch trials. If things became too crazy to handle the women could just accuse someone of being a witch. The most powerful people were the puppet masters.

  22. Puritan women were inferior in every way. They didn't have a say in their government or religion. They were expected to stay home and cook, clean, tend to the children.

    Puritan women had to cover up, both physically and emotionally. They couldn't reveal themselves to one another because they weren't supposed to stand out. It was all conformity. I think that no one could truly love one another because they were all the same. If the girls couldn't share their thoughts and emotions with the men, could anyone really ever say he loves a woman? The women were objects. In "The Crucible", all the women wore black and covered their hair, taking away their expression and identity. John Proctor calls his wife "woman", implying that she is only her gender, she is only her place in the family. She had no say in what happened to her.

  23. Women in Puritan society were considered the second string. Women were considered the supporting cast, the participation ribbons, the lesser. Often the bench-warmers; they never got the chance to show their real potential. The society revolved around men and what they wanted and what Puritans women wanted really did not matter. Women were supposed to be loyal to God and their husbands. They tried so hard to be perfect, but of course no one is and they fell short.
    Women's opinions were just suggestions for men and their wants were just secret dreams. Anne Bradstreet, in her poem "Her Mothers’ Epitaph,” states "Let no man know is my Desire." She points out that even if a women wanted to say or do something, they still were expected to conceal all their emotions. Despite their seemingly non-existent social status, women in Puritan society did hold a certain kind power over the community. Both Bradstreet's poem and Miller play contain parts where women wield a great deal of power, shown by Miller when Abigail convinces the entire town to accuse random bystanders. Even though Puritan women did not have many rights, they really secretly ran the town behind the scenes.

  24. Women in Puritan times were looked upon as nothing more than child bearers and extra people to help connect their community to God. Men were at a much higher social status than women, and had much more power as well. Now when we look back at how women were treated, we see it as inhumane and disrespectful, but at the time it was normal, as is tradition. Marriages were different because of how women were treated. Divorce may not have been a common occurrence, but a man divorcing a women was okay, while a women trying to divorce a man was unheard of and would not stand in their communities. Women also had no control over who they married, as it was completely up to the man or the girl's father, as is tradition. They lived a life with comparable rights to those held by slaves. Not only were their life decisions controlled by men, but also their death could be decided by men. Witchcraft was a serious problem to the Puritans (in their minds), so women were often blamed for any unexplainable occurrence in their community. Women in Puritan times were treated not as humans but as pawns in the great chess game of life.

  25. Puritan women were given many expectations yet had low respect in the community. In Her Mother's Epitaph it states, “A loving mother and obedient wife,/ A friendly neighbor, pitiful to poor.” This was how women were viewed and this was what their life was. Women had many chores such as taking care of the house (cleaning, organizing, etc), raising the kids as the “loving mother”, making and having a meal ready, and doing as any man says (being an “obedient wife”). Women had to complete polite to everyone around them,as “a friendly neighbor”. They lived merely to serve, and to fulfill these roles in the community. There was no gratitude for what the women did, it was just expected and the norm. And, they had to do all this while being very good Christians. If a woman was not being a good Christian then she may be considered a witch. But there wasn’t a “witch” or warlock so to speak for men if they were not being good Christians. Also, another example of the power men had over women, it was considered extremely wrong for a women to leave a man, but not wrong at all for a male to leave a woman. And woman who were not married were not respected. Unmarried women were second to bottom for the social class order but above children. Because of their low ranking in the social class order, Puritan women had no voice in everyday occurrences. Men had rights over them and the woman had to listen to and be subservient to men. Although men filled the political positions, women could obtain their political power in a informal way. As seen in The Crucible, Abigail and her friends have a huge influence over the entire town, but it was in the means of no conformity.

  26. Puritan women were expected to be silent and to obey their superiors. Their expectations in life were to serve the men, and to get married. They were the inferiors in the society. Few Puritan women had power, and if they did, it was because of the land they owned or inherited. The daily life of these women consisted of cooking, cleaning, possibly helping with the land, going to church and praying. The poem above says, "A worthy matron of unspotted life, A loving mother and obedient wife, A friendly neighbor...". I believe this is one reason why women were targeted as witches. The men considered themselves higher in society than the women and therefore had the "right" to convict women. If you look at the trials, it was a man who tried to purge the girls of the devil (Hale). It was men who made up the judges for the trials. It was men who were "threatened by witches". This is shown throughout the book. The book says, "Now Hale takes her hand. She is surprised." Even if Tituba is a slave, she is still an example of the inferiority of women. The fact that Hale takes her hand could have represented him coming down to her level and helping her. That was unusual during that time, ergo surprising Tituba. The average Puritan woman was looked down upon in Puritan society.

  27. In the Puritan Community, women were "lower" on the social and power spectrum. They were expected to be loyal and conservative through the way they dressed, acted, and their religious standpoints. Women were expected to uphold a great reputation so that they could marry and move up the social spectrum. They closely followed the women's stereotypes and traditions in their fears of being accused of witchcraft and of God.
    In The Crucible, Miller shows the women to be getting power by using fear and manipulation to gather support.This leads the key themes and questions of what is the relationship between fear, ignorance and power and to what extent is sacrifice necessary to achieve social change. I believe that as we continue reading this book these questions will be answered from a Puritan communities standpoint.